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When pigment producing cells (melanocytes) are damaged, they produce more melanin that bundle together. Clusters of melanin on certain parts of the skin lead to dark patches or hyperpigmentation. The main causes of hyperpigmentation could be sun exposure, genetic disposition (different races have different melanocytes), oral or topical medications such as birth control pills or antibiotics or biological effects such as aging. Treatment options include sunscreen, skin-lightening agents, antioxidants, microdermabrasion and/or chemical peels.

Topical treatments for disorders of facial hyperpigmentation are aimed at disrupting the enzymatic processes of pigment production within the melanocytes. Many compounds like kojic acid, sebiwhite, licorice, Nano bright, p-Tero white,etc target these molecules leading to a decrease in melanization. Below some of the depigmenting agents are explained:

Kojic Acid- is a natural metabolite produced by fungi that has the ability to inhibit tyrosinase activity in synthesis melanin. Licorice- it improves by dispersing the melanin, inhibition of melanin biosynthesis and inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity thereby decreasing free radical production. Glabridin, a polyphenolic flavonoid is the main component of licorice extract. p-Tero white- is a natural ingredient that eliminates localized hyper-pigmentation, brightens skin, and works as an anti-oxidant, free radical scavenger, and anti-inflammatory when used at 0.1% to 0.5% in water based or emulsified products for the skin. There are many compounds which are helpful for treating hyperpigmentation. For better results they are used in combinations.


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