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Sun exposure is one of the biggest reasons for the development of hyperpigmentation and in that melasma.

Melasma results in severe changes in quality of life. Hence, sun protection becomes the primary factor in prevention of progression of hyperpigmentation and melasma.

Sun exposure is also one of the main reasons for development of skin cancer and also, relationship between short-term intense ultraviolet (UV) exposure and cancer has been seen. Thus, a strict protection from UV radiation or in other words, a proper method for sun protection is required. However, a major problem in sun protection is that upto 90% of vitamin D required by humans is sourced through the action of the sun in the skin. Thus, sun protection could hamper and pose a serious problem in Vitamin D deficiency. However, the hazardous effects of avoiding sun protection it cause premature aging manifesting in sagging, wrinkles and in worst cases photo carcinogenesis due to damage of cells and DNA.

Ultimately, the need of the hour is to have better and balanced approaches to sun protection. A proper understanding of sun protection measures helps in assessing the types of it to be inculcated in daily lives.

Sun protection accompanies both primary and secondary factors where primary factors are sunscreens which include reflecting and scattering of light (physical barriers) or absorption of light (chemical barriers). Secondary factors in sun protection limit skin damage by internally working on the photochemical cascade triggered by the UV light.

Chemical sunscreens are widely used for sun protection. Their basic mechanism of action is in their chemical structure which allows for high energy UV rays to be absorbed. Each sunscreen varies on the specific range of wavelength depending on the kind of blockers. Chemical sunscreens consist of UVA and UVB blockers. UVB filters absorb the entire spectrum of UVB radiation (290 to 320 nm) while UVA radiation is divided into UVA I (340 to 400 nm) and UVA II (320 to 340nm). Broad-spectrum sunscreens absorb UV radiation from both the UVA and UVB. Numerous numbers of sun protection sunscreens are available with different range of UVA and UVB blockers.

Sunscreen also contain some depigmenting agents like Licorice Extract, Kojic Acid, Sebiwhite, Nano bright, etc which aids in skin lightening and helps heal the skin providing added benefit to the users. Products containing Licorice Extract, Kojic Acid, Sebiwhite, Nano bright, etc are also applied before the application of sunscreen to prevent the progression of melasma and hyperpigmentation.

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